Comfy Feet, Healthy You

Our feet can be one of the most neglected aspects of our bodies, even though they do most of the hard work everyday. They are charged with carrying us through every trail life takes us on, and oftentimes they are stuffed deep in stinky, sweaty shoes. Take a peek at your feet right now. Are they loose and free and comfortable, or are they being neglected? I think one of the best things about growing up in South America is that I learned the importance of caring for my feet, as it was ranked right up there with dental care!

Brazilians value their foot health, and they treat their feet with the utmost care. Although every culture is different, some of the most serious side effects of bad health are neglected feet. For example, in diabetes, we check feet on every exam. This is because the first signs of complications from diabetes can often be seen in feet. What are your feet telling you about your health? Go ahead and buy those shoes that give them the extra comfort they need. Who knows, maybe that will help you be as active is you want to be as well. Here are some pointers on picking the right shoes, directly from Harvard:

Shop for shoes in the afternoon, as your feet expand throughout the day.
Wear socks that you would normally wear.
Walk in the shoes before purchasing, and trust your own comfort fit more than size!

As I think about the past 10 years in medical missions, I think the best stories are of being able to give someone the gift of new shoes. For many of us it’s easy to take for granted that we can have the right shoes we need. But, this is definitely a luxury in many parts of the world.

I think particularly of a woman I met in Africa, who walked five miles every day to work. Her feet looked so worn and tired, and all she had to wear were flip flops. Once I realized we wore the same size, I gave her my favorite running shoes that I was wearing that day. The colors looked so cheery on her feet, and definitely gave her an extra bounce as she walked the dirt road home. The look of relief on her face was priceless when I handed her those shoes. She could now walk to work with shoes that supported her. As I watched her step turn into a bounce, I was reminded how easy it is to take something as simple as good shoes for granted.

Know Your Stage of Baldness and Its Recommended Treatment

There are specific stages of male as well as female hair loss and you need to find out what stage of your baldness and then go for a treatment accordingly. In this article, we will cover stages of male hair loss.

Stages of male hair loss and recommended treatment:

Stage 1: Stage one is a normal stage, where there are no visible signs at all, you will only find few hairs fall while combing or washing your hairs.

Treatment: Opt for a high protein diet, give your head scalp a gentle massage every day to improve scalp blood circulation, try to be stress-free

Stage 2: We can say that this is the early stage of baldness, and if you reached this stage, you need to consider taking advice from an expert doctor. You will see a deep loss of hair on top of your head.

Treatment: In this stage, doctor will suggest you a combination of treatment including, derma rolling for improving scalp absorption with Minoxidil and laser hair therapy.

Stage 3: You are just in the stage of acute hair loss or baldness stage. In this stage, you will see a thin line of hair loss area going from one side of your front forehead to the other side creating a bridge like structure; at times the hair loss area Is visible from the top of your head.

Treatment: At this stage, surgeons will suggest to have hair grafts, no more than 3000 to 4000 grafts to cover the area and will advise applying Minoxidil or other related supplements to maintain the growth of non affected areas.

Stage 4: If you click a picture of your head from the top side you might see a horseshoe shape formation of the area and further adding to this you will see an increase in the area from sides of the head.

Treatment: At this stage, expert doctor might advise you to go for hair transplantation from the back of your head where hair growth is good.

Stage 5: Only a thin line of hair might be visible on the back or sideways of your head.

Treatment: In this stage, the only methods through which you can restore your hairs are hair bonding or replacement with weaving technique.

Though all the recommended treatment for different hair loss stages may differ from patient to patient, so before opting for a solution it would be best to consult the hair transplant surgeon.

The Role Of The Brain In Addiction

Technology has its mighty hand over every field in the world now. And since the base of technology is science, so how could medical sector not undergo changes! Neuroscience has always been an area of immense complexities and curiosities. Advances in this sector has allowed doctors to dig deeper into the brain and even study minutest of changes that happen due to substance intake.

When we talk about addiction as a brain disease, the reward system of the brain plays a very important role.

Physiologically, limbic system is the brain’s reward system. Mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways (Mid-brain) have our cognitive control and functions which would be both reward related and aversion related. Reward related functions are always stronger and more motivating than aversion, hence drug abuse behavior is stronger in addicts. The reward system connects certain structures in such a way that they generate the feeling of pleasure for certain behaviors or stimulus given to the body. In day-to-day life, it is activated by healthy, life-sustaining activities like eating and socializing. But ‘Drug Abuse’ is another behavior that generates euphoria, which is enjoyed by the mind. And human nature is to repeat those actions that give us some definite satisfaction. The limbic system does more than just giving a reward response. For any behavior to be reinforced, it has to be first registered as pleasant to the mind and body. Limbic system in the brain recognizes our positive and negative emotions, which very well explains, how our body and mind get dependent on any psychoactive mood altering substance.

However, with recent developments, neurobiology has been able to study how addiction is related to the brain. Researchers and scientists studied the brain’s reaction to different substances and discovered that drug abuse actually alters the chemical makeup of the brain, which is what causes addiction and they named it as a ‘Brain Disease.’

Since the brain is placed as the epicenter of human activity, it is the initiation point of every phenomenon that occurs. Whatever we feel, experience or think, all is first registered by the brain and within lesser than nanoseconds, it commands us to act. It communicates through neurons, neurotransmitters, receptors and transporters. Yes, it is very complicated and sounds mystical too (specially to people like me who have not studied biology after high school)

How do Drugs Affect the Brain?
Psychoactive substances interrupt with the communication systems of the brain. They interfere with the way a message is transmitted and sent to its defined destination. No matter how much people say that cannabis would not be called a drug, it is a plant, but the reality remains unchanged, which is, that everything has certain chemical composition. For example, Heroin and Marijuana’s chemical structure are like copies of a natural neurotransmitter. Amphetamines mimic catecholamine neurotransmitters, causing general physiological changes which prepare the body for physical activity and fight-or-flight response. So, the moment the body is intoxicated with a drug containing amphetamines or its derivatives, it starts reacting in unnatural ways by raising blood pressure, increased alertness resulting in sleeplessness, blood glucose levels. They can easily activate neurons, giving various directions to the body to react in a different way, than would a natural neurotransmitter would! Cocaine can make a person delirious, because it releases natural neurotransmitters in bulk and blocks the natural recycling process of neurotransmitters by the brain. Amphetamine causes drug tolerance very quickly and rapidly too.

Chronic addictive drug use causes alterations in the process by which information from a gene is used to synthesize a gene product- RNA or Protein. Nigrostriatal Pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that plays an extensive and unavoidable role in addiction. It comprises of Transcription Factor, which is a protein that controls what all information has to go from the DNA to the messenger RNA. Psychoactive substances block, many of the neural and behavioral alterations that are to be taken to the RNA. Altered dopamine transmission is the first thing that comes to notice in cases of drug abuse.

These have been many studies extensively done by medical science researchers on addiction. There is a wide range of chemicals that people use to reach a euphoric state. But the gist of it all is, that they play with the normal functioning of brain by altering the natural chemicals that ought to be there.

How Does the Reward System Work?
Whenever a person happens to do something that takes him to a different state of mind for a while, like reaching the oomph point in a sexually pleasurable activity, treating the taste buds with a new and a very different flavor or winning an excessive amount of money or any other valuable resource that he could use to be really rich, the brain takes it all in the same way. It activates the same gland and releases the same chemical Dopamine, which functions as a neurotransmitter, in all scenarios that seem to be pleasurable or exciting. Similarly, whenever the body receives an antibody that becomes too exciting for it like any drug, chemical or alcohol, the body releases certain amount of dopamine or cuts down its level. It is a problematic scenario is there is too much or too little of dopamine released by the brain. Drugs are addictive because they release up-to 10 times more dopamine than a natural neurotransmitter can! But when the body gets tolerant to the same drug and its amount, it can even cut down its normal release of dopamine!